trattato di maastricht

In several of these areas, the Treaty seeks to enhance the "democratic functioning" of the institutions by conceding the directly-elected European Parliament rights not only of consultation but also of co-decision. convergence of national economic policies (from 1 January 1994); sets out criteria on inflation, levels of public debt, interest rates and exchange rates countries must meet before adopting the euro; develop human resources to ensure a high and sustainable level of employment; integrate people excluded from the labour market. Il Trattato di Maastricht, il Trattato C.E. [32] The commitment to monetary union and the convergence criteria denied member states the resort to currency deflation to ease balance-of-payments constraints on domestic spending, and left labour market "flexibility" as the only means of coping with asymmetric economic shocks. establishing rules and controls for the EU’s external borders; organising criminal and civil judicial cooperation; provide multilateral surveillance of this coordination; respect financial and budgetary discipline. [15] The ERM was the centrepiece of the European Monetary System (EMS), set up on voluntary basis in 1978 to reduce the "barrier" that exchange-rate volatility presented for intra-Community commerce (and for the management of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy). Sterling's release from the ERM was then followed in the UK by an economic recovery and a significant fall in unemployment. This has been described as a "reversed Keynesianism": macro-economic policy not to secure a full-employment level of demand, but, through the restrictive control of monetary growth and public expenditure, to maintain price and financial market stability; micro economic policy, not to engineer income and price controls in support of fiscal expansion, but to encourage job creation by reducing barriers to lower labour costs. [19][20], Since being forced by speculation against the franc to abandon the centrepiece of his Socialist programme in 1983, a job creating reflation,[21] Mitterrand had been committed to drawing Germany into a currency partnership. Under the name " Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ", it remains one of the two most important treaties in what is … December 12 1991: Maastricht Treaty hailed as great leap forward despite Major concessions By David Gow in Bonn, Paul Webster in Paris and John Palmer in … "[45] Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, conceded that consensus around the principle of subsidiarity had been possible only because "it conceals different interpretations". La firma arriva al termine dei negoziati. [12] The Treaty built on the growing suggestion that there was a Community-wide basis for citizenship rights. Il trattato di Maastricht rappresenta una tappa determinante della costruzione europea. There is a real "moral hazard" in allowing Member States to accumulate higher debts within the Eurozone – higher debts which, ultimately, have no relationship to higher growth. Nel Trattato si fissano dei parametri per stabilire se un paese sia in grado di far parte dell’Unione economica e monetaria. Trattato sull'Unione europea (TUE) / Trattato di Maastricht Il trattato sull'Unione europea, noto anche come il trattato di Maastricht, e le firme dei 12 ministri degli Affari esteri e delle Finanze degli Stati membri. L’Unione europea così creata veniva edificata sui tre pilastri del progetto Santer, il cui principale sarebbe stato quello noto come “Comunità europea”. Attraverso l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, la creazione di un'unione economica e monetaria e l'estensione dell'integrazione europea a nuovi settori, la Comunità entra in una dimensione politica. Among its most prominent innovations, the treaty: provides the legal basis for 6 new EU common policies; safeguard the EU’s common values, fundamental interests and independence; strengthen the security of the EU and its member countries; preserve peace and international security in line with, develop and consolidate democracy and the. From the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957, integrationists argued the free movement of workers was the logical corollary of the free movement of capital, goods and services and integral to the establishment of a common (and later single) European market. Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. – Der Kanzler öffnet die Akten über die deutsche Einheit. Without consulting with Karl Otto Pöhl, President of the Bundesbank, Kohl accepted the deal. [18] But when asked in 1990 by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to agree to German re-unification, French President François Mitterrand accepted only in the event Germany would abandon the Deutsche Mark and adopt a common currency. This narrow vote for ratification in France, known at the time as the 'petite oui', led Jacques Delors to comment that "Europe began as an elitist project in which it was believed that all that was required was to convince the decision-makers. However, the price of German cooperation was widely perceived as German dictation of the terms. For every endeavour it poses the question of whether national or Community policy is the most effective means, and elevates simple utility above any deference to national or local feeling. trattato di maastricht trattato sull'unione europea gazzetta ufficiale n. c 191 del 29 luglio 1992 sua maestÀ il re dei belgi, sua maestÀ la regina di danimarca, il presidente della repubblica federale di germania, il presidente della repubblica ellenica, sua maestÀ il re di spagna, il … Expression index: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, More. Dunkelste Stunden. Inflation at a rate no more than 1.5 percentage points higher than the average of the three best performing (lowest inflation) Member States; 2. a "budgetary position" that avoids "excessive" government deficits defined in ratios to gross domestic product (GDP) of greater than 3% for annual deficits and 60% for gross government debt; 3. the exchange rate of the national currency within "the normal fluctuation margins by the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary System without United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors. [41] This, in part, was a concession to United Kingdom which continued to insist on the sufficiency of the North Atlantic alliance (supported by the neutral, non-aligned, Member States, the Republic of Ireland and Austria, at the 1997 Amsterdam summit the UK prevented a merger of the WEU and the EU),[42][43]. In a new EU country of residence Member-State nationals have the right to vote, and to stand, in both local and European elections. I parametri di Maastricht o criteri di convergenza sono i requisiti economici e finanziari che gli Stati dell'Unione europea devono soddisfare per l'ingresso nell'Unione economica e monetaria dell'Unione europea (UEM). [35], These constraints were to become the focus of political scrutiny and public protest in the new-century European debt crisis. Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union, Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, "EC Leaders at Sea Over Danish Rejection: Europe: Vote against Maastricht Treaty blocks the march to unity. For the 1843 treaty between Belgium and the Netherlands, see, The Treaty of Maastricht, here shown at an exhibition in, Foreign and security policy, justice and home affairs, European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. Fact Sheets on the European Union - 2020", "The European Security and Defence Identity: NATO and the WEU (19 April 1999)", "What happens to our neutrality when the chips are down? Il trattato sull'Unione europea è stato firmato a Maastricht alla presenza del Presidente del Parlamento europeo, on. [44] Subsidiarity can be read as a federalising principle. From Libreria Oreste Gozzini snc (Firenze, FI, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since 01 October 2009 Seller Rating. [36], Taking issue in defence of the Maastricht criteria, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that "the old way to stimulate growth will not work." EU legislation is divided into primary and secondary. It confirms among its objectives are "the introduction of a citizenship of the Union" common to the nationals of the Member States; "economic and monetary union, ultimately including a single currency"; and "a common foreign and security policy including the eventual framing of a common defence".[3]. MAIN DOCUMENT. In these and other areas which do not fall within Community's "exclusive competence", in accordance with "the principle of subsidiarity" action is to be taken only if, "by reason of the scale or effects", the objectives cannot be more "efficiently" achieved by the Member States themselves.[4]. Il trattato sull'Unione europea, firmato il 7 febbraio 1992 a Maastricht, è entrato in vigore il 1o novembre 1993. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Title I, Common Provisions, establishes the European Union (EU) on the foundation of the three, already partially merged, European Communities: the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Rather there are "a series of tentative indications for Community action in a document full of imprecise concepts: 'sufficiently', 'better achieved', 'what is necessary', 'to achieve the objectives', subjective notions which leave the way wide open for interpretation or practical developments. Against the background of the end of the Cold War and the re-unification of Germany, and in anticipation of accelerated globalisation, the treaty negotiated tensions between member states seeking deeper integration and those wishing to retain greater national control. Ratificato dagli allora dodici paesi delle Comunità Europee, specifica i criteri politici ed economici per poter aderire all'Unione. In consequence of the Dutch Presidency of the Council of the European Communities during the previous six months of negotiation, the Treaty was signed in the Netherlands, in the city of Maastricht. Use, Other sites managed by the Publications Office, travel and live freely anywhere in the EU, Portal of the Publications Office of the EU. Soft cover. Unresolved in the Treaty is the question of their access to social rights. It also grants the Parliament the power to confirm (and therefore to veto) Council nominations for the European Commission, the Community's secretariat.. That phase of benign despotism is over. Weg ohne Wiederkehr. It amends the EEC's Treaty of Rome constitution, renaming it the European Community to reflect the Union's broader ambition. e i testi collegati. [17], Germany had considered a Deutschmark zone extending only to her more immediate and convergent neighbours: the Benelux countries and possibly Denmark. Treaty on European Union (OJ C 191, 29.7.1992, pp. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the twelve Member States of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). These criteria in turn dictated the mandate of the European System of Central Banks comprising the national central banks, but to include the prospective currency-issuing European Central Bank. "[33], Seeming to further preclude any possibility of the single-currency banking system being used to regulate European financial markets in support of expansionary – potentially inflationary – policies, the Treaty expressly prohibits the ECB or any Member State central extending "overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility" to "Community institutions or bodies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States", or the purchase from them debt instruments. [7], In the first Danish referendum, on 2 June 1992, the treaty was rejected by a margin of 50.7% to 49.3%. Ventotto anni fa è stato firmato il Trattato di Maastricht.La sera del 7 febbraio 1992, nei Paesi Bassi, sulle rive della Mosa, i dodici membri della Cee siglato il trattato che dà vita all’Unione Europea. [16] From the beginning of 1990, high German interest rates, set by the Bundesbank to counteract inflationary impact of the expenditure on German reunification, caused significant stress across the whole of the ERM. Prime Minister John Major was able to face down his "Maastricht Rebels" only by tying ratification to the survival of the government in a vote of confidence.[11]. Titles III and IV amend the treaties establishing the ECSC and Euratom to complete their absorption into the structure of European Community. In time, the tension between the transferred worker as "a mobile unit of production" contributing to the success of the single market, and the reality of the Community migrants as individuals, seeking to exercise "a personal right" to live and work in another state for their own, and their families', welfare, asserted itself. The "austerity" they had subsequently to impose as a condition of assistance from Germany and other of their trade-surplus EU partners, raised calls for new arrangements to better manage payment imbalances between member states, and ease the burden of adjustment upon wage-, and benefit-, dependent households. L'Unione disponeva di un quadro istituzionale unico, composto dal Consiglio, dal Pa… 1-112). It creates the European Union. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the 12 member states of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). The West European Union, an until recently moribund club within NATO, is described as "an integral part of the development of the Union", and asked it to help "elaborate and implement decisions and actions of the Union which have defence implications. Our main task is to maintain price stability in the euro area and so preserve the purchasing power of the single currency. In Britain the Maastricht rebellion drew on the experience of Black Wednesday. Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis credited the Maastricht criteria with framing of a union of deflation and unemployment. "[10], In the United Kingdom parliament ratification did not command a clear majority. In September 1992, a referendum in France narrowly supported the ratification of the treaty, with 50.8% in favour. La parte finale del trattato di Maastricht "il vincolo del 3%" (self.SamueleDelPapa) submitted 1 hour ago by SamueleDelPapa. Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg. Political debate continued as to who should have access to public services and welfare systems funded by taxation.[14]. [13] This common and parallel citizenship accords the Member State migrants not only the civil right to take up residence and employment, but also, and for the first time, political rights. By the time of their own ratifications debates, France and Denmark also found themselves under pressure in foreign exchange markets, their currencies trading close to the bottom of their ERM bands. But in making it an explicit constitutional principle the Maastricht Treaty opened up "debates about whether this strengthened the states, regions or local government vis-à-vis the EU or vice versa". Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. Il trattato di Maastricht si poneva come obiettivo da raggiungere entro il 1999 la creazione di una moneta comune unica (euro) e di una Banca centrale europea. In both cases, Member States are to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]",[5] but otherwise cooperate independently of Community institutions. "[24] Commonly known as the Maastricht Criteria,[25][26] these obligations represented the performance thresholds for member states to progress toward the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the adoption the common currency (designated at the 1995 Madrid European as the Euro).[27]. Title VII, Final Provisions, covers a number of anomalous issues. Operation Self-Deceit: New Documents Shine Light on Euro Birth Defects, "The IMF & the European Economic and Monetary Union - Factsheet", "Madrid European Council (12/95): Conclusions", "European Labour in a Single Market: '1992' and the Implications of Maastricht", "Wolfgang Schäuble: "Europe will only work if the rules are the same for smaller and bigger member states, "The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties. Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. [40] Yet it is clear that nothing is to be construed as systematically constraining the foreign or defence policies of the individual Member States. In the wake of the Eurozone debt crisis unfolding from 2009, the most enduring reference to the Maastricht Treaty has been to the rules of compliance – the "Maastricht criteria" – for the currency union. On 18 May 1993, Maastricht Treaty was endorsed by a vote of 56.7%.[9]. This groups the traditional activities, working and decision-making procedures of the 3 original EU organisations: Common foreign and security policy (2nd pillar), Cooperation on justice and home affairs (3rd pillar). Provided that all Member States ratify, it rules that the Treaty should come into force on 1 January 1993. The treaties (primary legislation) are the basis or ground rules for all EU action. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the 19 European Union countries which have adopted the euro. 1992, dai rappresentanti dei governi dei 12 Paesi membri della CEE, entrò in vigore il 1° nov. 1993. Title V and VI extend existing intergovernmental consultations on foreign-policy, security and defence matters, and on "cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs." The Maastricht Treaty is of course the main example of a legally-binding agreement among privileged countries. Introduction to the Jacques Delors Colloquium 1991: "Subsidiarity: the challenge of change" organised by the European Institute of Public Administration at Maastricht, 21 and 22 March 1991, p. 32. 0107 - 0108 Gazzetta ufficiale n. Maastricht, Trattato di Trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea (UE). Having "resolved to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe", the Treaty proposes "further steps to be taken in order to advance European integration"[2] under seven titles. The twelve members of the European Communities signing the Treaty on 7 February 1992 were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Progetto Curricolare di Cittadinanza e Costituzione a.s. 2016-2017, classe 4A Liceo Scientifico Capoterra - I.I.S. [38] The Treaty, however, proposed no significant departures in these areas. sottoscritto il 7 febbraio 1992 dai 12 Stati membri della Comunità Europea nella città di Maastricht ed entrato in vigore il 1º novembre 1993, dopo la ratificazione dei Parlamenti degli Stati membri, il Trattato di Maastricht amplia i poteri della CE; fissa i tempi e i modi dell'unificazione economica e politica dell'Europa; decide la realizzazione di una banca centrale. In Ireland, the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution, allowing the state to ratify the Treaty, was approved in a referendum held on 18 June 1992 with the support of 69.1% of votes cast. Works related to Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union at Wikisource, This article is about one of two founding treaties of the European Union. With limited leeway granted in exceptional circumstances, the obligations are to maintain: 1. L'Unione era fondata sulle Comunità europee e sostenuta da politiche e forme di cooperazione previste dal trattato sull'Unione europea. This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website. [8] Concessions secured by the end of year in Edinburgh including, critically, the same exemption secured by Britain from the single currency (Denmark would not have to give up the krone), allowed for a second referendum. The Maastricht criteria, he insisted, were correct in placing the onus for growth on "competitiveness, structural reforms, investment, and sustainable financing".[37]. On 16 September 1992 the British government had been forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), after a failed and costly attempt to keep the pound above its mandated exchange rate limit. Tasso d'inflazione non superiore dell'1,5% rispetto a quello dei tre Paesi più virtuosi. In particolare il debito pubblico di un paese non può superare il 60% del suo P.I.L. A.Strutture dell'Unione Con l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, il trattato di Maastricht ha segnato una nuova tappa nel processo volto a creare «un'unione sempre più stretta tra i popoli dell'Europa». Following the accession of a further twelve states, ten from the former Eastern Bloc – Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia – plus Cyprus and Malta, and an aborted Treaty on a European Constitution, Maastricht was more comprehensively revisited. As an implicit presumption subsidiarity may have been considered a check upon the supranational development of the EEC. Il trattato ha inoltre istituito la Banca centrale europea (BCE) e il Sistema europeo di banche centrali, precisandone le finalità. The four "convergence criteria", as detailed in attached protocols,[28][29] impose control over inflation, public debt and the public deficit, exchange rate stability and domestic interest rates. Phone +39 0143 76669 Fax +39 0143 143 2230 contact/selling point in The Netherlands: Mr Armand Diets GSM +31(0)622450250 The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. Il Trattato di Maastricht è stato firmato il 7 febbraio 1992, avviando il percorso verso l’unione politica e monetaria dei membri. Sceptics note that the Treaty offers no legally actionable definition of subsidiarity. In base ai cosiddetti “parametri di Maastricht” (dal nome della città olandese in cui il 7 febbraio 1992 fu firmato il trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea), i Paesi che intendono adottare l’Euro come propria divisa, devono offrire delle garanzie su stabilità dei prezzi, situazione delle finanze pubbliche, tassi di interesse a lungo termine e tasso di cambio. [31], The Treaty dedicates the EU central banking system to price stability, and gives it "a degree of independence from elected officials" greater even "than that of its putative model, the German Bundesbank". Save for Later. – Hinter der Fassade ihrer deutsch-französischen Freundschaft haben Helmut Kohl und François Mitterrand erbittert um Einheit und Euro gerungen, wie jetzt neue Dokumente aus dem Kanzleramt zeigen. The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. The EU inherited many of its present responsibilities from, and the membership of the European Communities (EC), which were founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration. (1) The United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union and becomes a third country (non-EU country) as of 1 February 2020. In protest against the social-policy opt out, Labour opposed, while "anti-federalists" split the governing Conservatives. Word index: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, More. Set along side the European Community, the cooperation proposed in the Maastricht Treaty on foreign and security policy, and on justice and home affairs, were characterised in official commentary as the second and third "pillars" of the Union. In establishing the European Union the Maastricht Treaty amended the treaties that had established the European Communities in the 1950s. Tizzano Antonio. Bacaredda-Atzeni di Cagliari Per aderire al Trattato di Maastricht nei diversi paesi è stato indetto un referendum 20. The Treaty rules that "every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union". [46], The 1992 Treaty may have introduced a more consequential constitutional principle in its promotion "co-decision". Following the EU accessions of Austria, Finland, and Sweden, it was in turn amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), and Nice (2001). Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse anche il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti coloro che possiedono la cittadinanza di uno Stato membro. Coordination in foreign and security policy had taken place since the beginning of the 1970s under the name of European Political Cooperation (EPC), which had been first written into the treaties by the 1987 Single European Act. severe tensions for at least the last two years"; and. [22], Having "resolved to achieve the strengthening and the convergence and to establish an economic and monetary union including,... a single and stable currency",[23] the Treaty ruled that "Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern", and that the obligations assumed should be a matter for "mutual surveillance.

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