supermarine spitfire variants

Media related to Supermarine Spitfire Mark XVIII at Wikimedia Commons. The basic airframe proved to be extremely adaptable, capable of taking far more powerful engines and far greater loads than its original role as a short-range interceptor had allowed for. Deliveries began in January 1942, and the Seafire was used in growing numbers and variants throughout the remainder of the war. A total of 81 Mk 24s were completed, 27 of which were conversions from Mk 22s. Structurally unchanged from the C wing, the outer machine gun ports were eliminated, although the outer machine gun bays were retained and their access doors were devoid of empty cartridge case ports and cartridge case deflectors. [30], F Mk XIVs had a total of 109.5 gal of fuel consisting of 84 gal in two main tanks and a 12.5 imp gal fuel tank in each leading edge wing tank; other 30, 45, 50 or 90 gal drop tanks could be carried. The Supermarine Spiteful was a British Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification F.1/43 during the Second World War as a successor to the Spitfire. Wing Commander Peter Brothers, O/C Culmhead Wing in 1944–1945 and a Battle of Britain veteran; It was truly an impressive machine, being able to climb almost vertically – it gave many Luftwaffe pilots the shock of their lives when, having thought they had bounced you from a superior height, they were astonished to find the Mk XIV climbing up to tackle them head-on, throttle wide open! This Spitfire has the "cropped" Merlin 45 series engine and the "clipped" wings. The undercarriage legs also had a 7.75 in (19.7 cm) wider track to help improve ground handling. However the new wing gave less than perfect handling characteristics and so the Mk 23 was never built from the Mk 22 airframe as intended. The Mk XIV could climb to 20,000 ft (6,100 m) in just over five minutes and its top speed, which was achieved at 25,400 ft (7,700 m), was 446 mph (718 km/h). The Spitfire was built in many variants, using several wing configurations, and was produced … Supermarine Spitfire variants: specifications, performance and armament — Spitfire Role Fighter Manufacturer Supermarine Designer R. J. Mitchell First flight 5 March 1936 Introduction 1938 Retired 1955, RAF Primary user Royal Air Force … Wikipedia For engines equipped with a single-stage supercharger the air being forced through the supercharger air intake was compressed by the supercharger's impeller. The Supermarine Spitfire, the only British fighter to be manufactured before, during and after the Second World War, was designed as a short-range fighter capable of defending Britain from bomber attack and achieved legendary status fulfilling this role during the Battle of Britain. Because the first XIVs were converted from existing Mk VIII airframes the first true production serial No. They were quite unqualified to make such a judgement and later events would prove them totally wrong. I found that it had a spectacular performance doing 445 mph at 25,000 ft, with a sea-level rate of climb of over 5,000 ft per minute. [42] The Mk 21 armament was standardised as four 20mm Hispano II cannon with 150 rpg and no machine guns. Conclusions The critical trimming characteristics reported on the production Spitfire 21 have been largely eliminated by the modifications carried out to this aircraft. "The Spitfire and its Wing: Article and scale drawings. The designers used a system of levers to shorten the undercarriage legs by about 8 in (20 cm) as they retracted, because the longer legs did not have enough space in which to retract; the levers extended the legs as they came down. It was a splendid aeroplane in every respect. The oil tank (which had been moved from the lower cowling location of the Merlin engine variants to forward of the fuselage fuel tanks) was increased in capacity from 6 to 10 gal. In keeping with company convention, the Griffon was named after a bird of prey, in this case the griffon vulture. This article adopts the convention of using Roman numerals for the Mks I–XX and Arabic numerals for the Mks 21–24. The resulting aircraft provided a substantial performance increase over the Mk IX. [33], One problem which did arise in service was localised skin wrinkling on the wings and fuselage at load attachment points; although Supermarine advised that the Mk XIVs had not been seriously weakened, nor were they on the point of failure, the RAF issued instructions in early 1945 that all F and FR Mk XIVs were to be refitted with clipped wings. [36] Later, purpose-built conversions, also known as the FR Mk XIVE, had the later cut-down rear fuselage with its tear drop–shaped canopy, port and/or starboard camera ports (without blisters), and an additional rear fuel tank of 34 gallons which extended the Spitfire's range to about 610 miles (980 km) on internal fuel. On reflection the general scheme became clear. The final Spitfire variant, the Mk 24, was similar to the Mk 22 except that it had an increased fuel capacity over its predecessors, with two fuel tanks of 33 gal (150 l) each installed in the rear fuselage. No further attempts should be made to perpetuate the Spitfire family. If this failed the pitch of the rear propeller was no longer under control and might do anything which was potentially dangerous. However pilots found it difficult to exploit this advantage in combat as German pilots were reluctant to be drawn into dogfights with Spitfires of any type below 20,000 feet (6,100 m). speed, using + 15 lb/in² "boost". These covered the Spitfire in development from the Merlin to Griffon engines, the high speed photo-reconnaissance variants and the different wing configurations. Hurricane vs Spitfire: Costs After looking at the Hurricane and Spitfire’s specifications, it may be tempting to draw a conclusion as to which is the better aircraft. The full remedy was to use the Bendix-Stromberg pressure carburettor, which allowed more precise metering of the amount of fuel used by the engine and prevented the problem of fuel starvation. 1943–1948 was a transition period during which new aircraft entering service were given Arabic numerals for mark numbers but older aircraft retained their Roman numerals. It was overshadowed in the public consciousness by the Supermarine Spitfire's role during the Battle of Britain in 1940, but the Hurricane inflicted 60 per cent of the losses sustained by the Luftwaffe in the engagement, and fought in all the major theatres of the Second World War. Handling, however, was considered to be better than previous Spitfire marks, and the clipped wings conferred excellent manoeuvrability through enhanced aileron response. Because the Americans measured their boost ratings using inches of Mercury (" Hg), their boost gauges more accurately recorded the absolute pressures being generated by the superchargers at all altitudes.[13]. Some Spitfires of one mark or variant may have been modified to another; for example, several of the first Mk VBs were converted from Mk IBs; the first Mk IXs were originally Mk VCs. The second stage starting was often accompanied by a noticeable jolt, which inexperienced pilots often mistook for some type of engine malfunction. From 1948 onwards, Arabic numerals were used exclusively. Griffon-powered variants of the Supermarine Spitfire. Media related to Supermarine Spitfire Mark XIX at Wikimedia Commons The Mk XIX was the last and most successful photographic reconnaissance variant of the Spitfire. The next essential ... was an improvement in the directional stability and control and a new fin was drawn out with a substantial increase in area (7.42 sq. The last 45 or so Mk XIIs, were based on Mk VIIIs with two wing fuel tanks, each containing a maximum fuel load of 14 gal, and featured the larger horn balances, retractable tailwheel and undercarriage legs with torque-links, "dished" leg fairings and the stronger Dunlop AH10019 four spoke wheels. Its handling qualities have benefitted (sic) to a corresponding extent and it is now considered suitable both for instrument flying and low flying. As well as A and B type wings, the Mk V introd… All had the larger "Spiteful" tail units; modifications were also made to the trim tab gearings to perfect the F Mk 24's handling. A key factor which allowed the continued development of the Spitfire was the development of progressively more powerful and improved engines, starting with the Rolls-Royce Merlin and progressing to the bigger and more powerful Rolls-Royce Griffon. II which, it was decided, would be the first version to be produced exclusively by the huge new Nuffield “shadow” factory at Castle Bromwich. It was a further development of Supermarine's famous Spitfire and Spiteful aircraft, which by that point was a 10-year-old design following a rapid period of aviation development in history. The new design also had a modern inwards-retracting undercarriage. The second article describes Spitfire variants powered by later model Merlins, featuring two-stage, two-speed superchargers, while the final article covers the later Spitfire variants which were powered by the larger Rolls-Royce Griffon engines. The Tempest emerged as one of the most powerful fighters of World War II and was the fastest single-engine propeller-driven aircraft of the war at low altitude. [2] To provide room for the belt feed system of the cannon, the inner machine gun bays were moved outboard between ribs 13 and 14. Spitfire L.F Mk Vb of 316(Polish) "Warszawski" Squadron. The Mk 18 missed the war. The proposed new design was called the Mk 21, which at first displayed poor flight qualities that damaged the excellent Spitfire reputation. The Spitfire was also adopted for service on aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy; in this role they were renamed Supermarine Seafire. The British Supermarine Spitfire was one of the most popular fighter aircraft of the Second World War. [18]. This would lead to 24 marks of Spitfire, and many sub-variants within the marks, being produced throughout the Second World War and beyond, in continuing efforts to fulfill Royal Air Force requirements and successfully combat ever-improving enemy aircraft. The fairings over the Hispano barrels were shorter and there was usually a short rubber stub covering the outer cannon port. Some of the squadron's aircraft went to the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force where they were operated until 1955. As a result, F and FR Mk XIVEs had a range that was increased to over 610 miles (980 km), or 960 miles (1,540 km) with a 90 gal drop tank. The Supermarine Spitfire was a single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by Great Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II. The Mark numbers used in the aircraft designations did not necessarily indicate a chronological order; for example, the Mk IX was a stopgap measure brought into production before the Mks VII and VIII. [32], The Mk XIV was used by the 2nd Tactical Air Force as their main high-altitude air superiority fighter in northern Europe with six squadrons operational by December 1944. The new wing of the Spitfire F Mk 21 and its successors was designed to help alleviate this problem; the wing's stiffness was increased by 47%, and a new design of aileron using piano hinges and geared trim tabs meant the theoretical aileron-reversal speed was increased to 825 mph (1,328 km/h). There were eventually 26 variants of Spitfire, not including the carrier based version, the Supermarine Seafire. A total of 287 Mk 22s were built: 260 at Castle Bromwich and 27 by Supermarine at South Marston. Outside on the tarmac at Worthy Down stood the inoffensive-looking but highly potent DP485 ... All went according to plan until, when we were about halfway between Odiham and Farnborough and going flat out, I was beginning to overhaul the Fw 190 and the Typhoon. A four blade Rotol propeller of 10 ft 5 in (3.1 m) was used. F Mk IIc its multitude of variants Spitfire VIIIs. The Westland Whirlwind was a British twin-engined heavy fighter developed by Westland Aircraft. ten main factories and several smaller workshops, Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II, Supermarine Spitfire variants: specifications, performance and armament, Supermarine Spitfire (early Merlin-powered variants), Supermarine Spitfire (late Merlin-powered variants), http://www.spitfireperformance.com/JF319_Report_P3792.pdf, http://www.spitfireperformance.com/spitfire-XIV-ads.jpg, Alan Le Marinel hosts Supermarine Spitfire, K5054 – Supermarine Type 300 prototype Spitfire & production aircraft history. In comparative tests with a Mk IX it was 14 mph (23 km/h) faster at sea level, but above 20,000 ft (6,100 m) it had become slower. No. The "fishtail" design of ejector exhaust stub gave way to ones of circular section. The debut of the formidable Focke-Wulf Fw 190 in late 1941 had caused problems for RAF fighter squadrons flying the latest Spitfire Mk Vb. For example, even relatively minor damage on the wing leading edges could drastically reduce top speed. The type has the distinction of being the first jet fighter to enter operational service with the FAA. The Supermarine Spitfire was developed in the mid-1930s as a short-range, high-performance interceptor aircraft by chief designer R. J. Mitchell. Fighter/ Fighter reconnaissance/ Photo reconnaissance. Stronger undercarriage legs were raked 2 inches (5.08 cm) forward, making the Spitfire more stable on the ground and reducing the likelihood of the aircraft tipping onto its nose. The many changes were made in order to fulfill Royal Air Force requirements and to successfully engage in combat with ever-improving enemy aircraft. [4], The Hispano Mk.II cannons were now belt fed from box magazines allowing for 120 rpg (the "Chattellerault" system). Unlike the Merlin engines the Griffons used superchargers which were designed to achieve maximum performance over a wider altitude band; as such there were no Griffon engined L.F. or H.F. Spitfire variants. Rolls-Royce Merlin 66: 150 Octane fuel, +25 lb/in² boost. ... Supermarine Spitfire … The British Supermarine Spitfire was the only Allied fighter aircraft of the Second World War to fight in front line service from the beginnings of the conflict, in September 1939, through to the end in August 1945. It combined features of the Mk XI with the Griffon engine of the Mk XIV. The Supermarine Seafang was a British Rolls-Royce Griffon–engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification N.5/45. The Tempest, originally known as the Typhoon II, was an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, intended to address the Typhoon's unexpected deterioration in performance at high altitude by replacing its wing with a thinner laminar flow design. However the tests were disappointing and, after discussions at Supermarine, it was decided to build a new prototype using the Mk 21 prototype PP139: in this form the prototype was designated F Mk 23, and was to be renamed the Supermarine Valiant. [43]. Using 100 Octane fuel and +12 lb/in² boost the Merlin III was capable of generating 1,310 hp (977 kW). The first trial installation of the installation (modification 1029) was made in BS118, a Mark XI in November 1943. This wing was structurally modified to reduce labour and manufacturing time plus it was designed to allow mixed armament options, A type, B type or four 20 mm Hispano cannon. This meant that the powerful slipstream swung the Spitfire to the right on the ground, requiring the rudder to be deflected to the left during takeoff. Rolls-Royce engineers were already working on a new version of the Merlin incorporating a two-stage supercharger; the combination of the improved Merlin and the Spitfire Mk VC airframe in a "stop-gap" design allowed the RAF to combat the Fw 190 on equal terms. The Griffon IIB which powered the Mk IV was a single-stage supercharged engine of 1,735 hp (1,293 kW). All were fitted with the larger, pointed tip rudder. [7]. Unless otherwise noted, all Griffon-engined Spitfire variants used the strengthened … With the increasing use of hard-surfaced runways in the post-war years many Spitfires were either manufactured, or retro-fitted with, larger mainwheels which were of a "three spoke" patt…

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