kurdistan iracheno cartina

[15][16], Due to its latitude and altitude, Iraqi Kurdistan is cooler and much wetter than the rest of Iraq. Annual Weather Averages in Mosul. Please check your email inbox to confirm your sign-up request. In the Shade of a Tree: Religious Patterns in the Kurdistan Region from Late Antiquity to Modern Times Gianfilippo Terribili - Sapienza University of Rome Camilla Insom - L’Orientale University of Naples MAIKI (Missione Archeologica Italiana in Kurdistan Iracheno – DiSA Sapienza) The campaign also included Arabization of Kirkuk, a program to drive Kurds and other ethnic groups out of the oil-rich city and replace them with Arab settlers from central and southern Iraq.[56]. Visualizza altre idee su kurdistan, iraq, pianificazione urbana. Kurdistan is not a country, but the map of the Kurdish region includes the geographical region in the Middle East wherein the Kurdish people have historically established a prominent population and unified cultural identity. The largest lake in the region is Lake Dukan. [75] On March 23, Barzani officially declared that Iraqi Kurdistan will hold the referendum some time "before October" of that year. However, as of late 2015, no new Regions have been formed, and the KRG remains the only regional government within Iraq. Contribute your suggestions in the form below! Media in category "Maps of Iraqi Kurdistan" The following 55 files are in this category, out of 55 total. Eva Savelsberg, Siamend Hajo, Irene Dulz. Under pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945. Conflicte și controverse. A People Without A Home. Dispacci dal fronte iracheno book. The second and more extensive and widespread wave began from March 29, 1987 until April 23, 1989, when the Iraqi army under the command of Saddam Hussein & Ali Hassan al-Majid carried out a genocidal campaign against the Kurds, characterized by the following human rights violations: The widespread use of chemical weapons, the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, and slaughter of around 50,000 rural Kurds, by the most conservative estimates. [77], The 2017 Kurdistan Region independence referendum took place on September 25, with 92.73% voting in favor of independence. [8][9] One of the ancient names of Kurdistan is Corduene.[10][11]. In the face of growing Kurdish dissent, as well as Barzani's personal power, Qasim began to incite the Barzanis historical enemies, the Baradost and Zebari tribes, which led to intertribal warfare throughout 1960 and early 1961. After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Mustafa Barzani was invited by Qasim to return from exile, where he was greeted with a hero's welcome. (2013). [29] The Assyrians ruled the region from the 21st century BC. Among other cities in the climate table below, Soran, Shaqlawa and Halabja also experience lows which average below 0 °C (32 °F) in winter. [39] In the early 18th century, it briefly passed to the Iranian Afsharids led by Nader Shah. The earliest neolithic site in Kurdistan is at Tell Hassuna, the centre of the Hassuna culture, circa 6000 BC. Following Nader's death in 1747, Ottoman suzerainty was reimposed, and in 1831, direct Ottoman rule was established which lasted until World War I, when the Ottomans were defeated by the British. Meanwhile, during 1959–1960, Barzani became the head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which was granted legal status in 1960. كوردستان – Kurdistan), pełna nazwa: Region Kurdystanu (arab. 6. Kurdistan on ajalooline kurdide asuala Lääne-Aasias. Maeci. Tensions marked a high stage in late February 2008 when Turkey unilaterally took military action against the PKK which at times uses the northern Iraq region as a base for militant activities against Turkey. [81] Other peoples such as Arabs, Assyrians, Armenians, Shabaks and Mandeans have their own distinctive cultures. In 1929, the Barzani demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. [78] This triggered a military operation in which the Iraqi government retook control of Kirkuk and surrounding areas,[79] and forced the KRG to annul the referendum.[80]. It is one of the four parts of Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria (Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula were eventually taken over by Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years. This melting pot of ethnicities, languages, religions and political factions is due to the large area that the Kurds inhabit. Regional autonomy had originally been established in 1970 with the creation of the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. The region became a center of the Assyrian Church of the East and a flourishing Syriac literary tradition during Sassanid rule.[36][37][38]. 15). The Tigris river enters Iraqi Kurdistan from Turkish Kurdistan. Iraqi Kurdistan sees snowfall occasionally in the winter, and frost is common. While Kurdistan is known for its strong cultural unity, Kurdistan is home to numerous languages, religions and political factions. [14], Bird species include, the see-see partridge, Menetries's warbler, western jackdaw, Red-billed chough, hooded crow, European nightjar, rufous-tailed scrub robin, masked shrike and the pale rockfinch. By February 1961, Barzani had successfully defeated the pro-government forces and consolidated his position as leader of the Kurds. Then, after another failed offensive, Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and Peshmerga (Freedom fighters) forces led by Barzani on the other. Things began to change after the 1991 uprising against Saddam Hussein at the end of the Persian Gulf War. A new constitution of Iraq was established in 2005, defining Iraq as a federalist state consisting of Regions and Governorates. Kurdistan is a geo-cultural region wherein the Kurds have historically formed a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based. Iraq was widely condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures, including the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds,[55] which resulted in thousands of deaths. The Kurdish populations are recognized in both Iraq and Iran, as the Kurds in northern Iraq have successfully established their own autonomous government (the Kurdistan Regional Government), and the Kurds in Iran primarily inhabit the Iranian province of Kordestan. 4-set-2017 - Esplora la bacheca "Erbil Citadel" di su Pinterest. Student Transportation Activity, October 2017, Domiz camp, Dahuk, Kurdistan Region - Iraq. [44][45] Recognizing the futility of continuing this campaign, Rahamn Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Rahman Arif in a 1968 coup by the Baath Party. إقليم كردستان – Iqlīmi Kurdistān, kurd. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}36°55′N 44°2′E / 36.917°N 44.033°E / 36.917; 44.033. Dal campo profughi di Erbil alla prima linea del fronte a pochi kilometri dal Califfato, i nostri reporter raccontano l'avanzata dell'Isis nel Kurdistan… Reportage dal Kurdistan iracheno on Vimeo Join [60] This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. In response to the attack, Qasim lashed out and ordered the Iraqi Air Force to indiscriminately bomb Kurdish villages, which ultimately served to rally the entire Kurdish population to Barzani's standard. There are also several smaller lakes, such as Darbandikhan Lake and Duhok Lake. Southern Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekha Dar ("black tent"). Mountains in Iraqi Kurdistan include the Zagros, Sinjar Mountains, Hamrin Mountains, Mount Nisir and Qandil mountains. [46] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period.[47]. Processo di democratizzazione del Rojava siriano e del Kurdistan iracheno. However, defiant to the British, in 1922 Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as king. For Assyria, he lists three major cities – Babylon, Ctesiphon and Seleucia (Amm. Instead, it is rolling hills and plains vegetated by sclerophyll scrubland. Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan (Kurdish: باشووری کوردستان ,Başûrê Kurdistanê ‎,) is the part of Kurdistan in northern Iraq.It is one of the four parts of Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria (Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan). کردستان – Kurdistān, kurd. Duhok has the hottest summers in the region, with highs averaging around 42 °C (108 °F). [67] On 16 November 2012 a military clash between the Iraqi forces and the Peshmerga resulted in one person killed. Winning team of football tournament, May 2017, Domiz 2 camp, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq. Among their neighbours, the Kurdish culture is closest to Persian culture. Click each marker to explore the region, view pictures, and learn more. With mediation by Algerian President Houari Boumediene, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as the Algiers Pact. Barzani went to Iran with many of his supporters. Prior to the rule of king Ushpia circa 2030 BC, the city of Ashur appears to have been a regional administrative center of the Akkadian Empire, implicated by Nuzi tablets,[26] subject to their fellow Akkadian Sargon and his successors.[27]. The severe economic hardships caused by the embargoes fueled tensions between the two dominant political parties, the KDP and the PUK, over control of trade routes and resources. The taxation of this trade at the crossing point between Saddam's territory and Kurdish controlled territory and then into Turkey, along with associated service revenue, meant that whoever controlled Dohuk and Zakho had the potential to earn several million dollars a week. [12][13], Animals found in the region include the Syrian brown bear, wild boar, gray wolf, golden jackal, Indian crested porcupine, red fox, goitered gazelle, Eurasian otter, striped hyena, Persian fallow deer, onager, mangar and the Euphrates softshell turtle. There are many rivers running through the region, which is distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, and picturesque nature. Consignment Based Conformity Assessment (CBCA) service for exports to Kurdistan. The Al-Anfal Campaign constituted a systematic genocide of the Kurdish people in Iraq. Kurdistan iracheno, il racconto di Maria (Emergency) dai falegnami di Sulaimaniya - OnuItalia Onuitalia - 2019-07-04 14:25 14. Annual rainfall differs across Iraqi Kurdistan, with some places seeing rainfall as low as 500 millimetres (20 in) in Erbil to as high as 900 millimetres (35 in) in places like Amadiya. At the same time, Iraq imposed an economic blockade over the region, reducing its oil and food supplies. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion ended after a few days. At this point, Barzani ordered his forces to occupy and expel government officials from all Kurdish territory. During the Iran–Iraq War, the Iraqi government again implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. By early 1960, it became apparent that Qasim would not follow through with his promise of regional autonomy. Even though autonomy had been agreed in 1970, local population enjoyed no particular democratic freedom denied to the rest of the country. [76] On April 2, 2017, the two governing parties released a joint statement announcing they would form a joint committee to prepare for a referendum to be held on 25 September. [74], In February 2016, Kurdish president Barzani stated once again that "Now the time is ripe for the people of Kurdistan to decide their future through a referendum", supporting an independence referendum and citing similar referenda in Scotland, Catalonia and Quebec. The U.S. and the Coalition established a No Fly Zone over a large part of northern Iraq (see Operation Provide Comfort),[57] however, it left out Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk and other important Kurdish populated regions. The mountainous nature of Iraqi Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters make it a land of agriculture and tourism. La regione confina con l'Iran a Est, con la Turchia a Nord, con la Siria a Ovest. Later he moved to the Soviet Union after the collapse of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.[42][43]. Ajalugu. [49] The agreement left the Kurds helpless and Tehran cut supplies to the Kurdish movement. This campaign failed in May 1966, when Barzani forces thoroughly defeated the Iraqi Army at the Battle of Mount Handrin, near Rawandiz. Il Kurdistan iracheno, ufficialmente Regione del Kurdistan, (in curdo: Herêma Kurdistanê), è un'entità federale autonoma nella parte settentrionale dell'Iraq che comprende i quattro governatorati a maggioranza curda di Dahuk (Dihok), Erbil (Hewlêr), Halabja (Helebce) e Sulaymaniyya (Silêmanî). stân) is Persian for region. I curdi e i criteri per la definizione di popolo. The Ba'ath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. Nel Kurdistan iraniano sgorgano i quattro fiumi principali e il lago Urmia, con una superficie di circa 5.500 kmq e diverse dighe per la produzione di energia idroelettrica. It was ruled by the Akkadian Empire from 2334 BC until 2154 BC. Marc. This stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Ba'athist coup against Qasim in February 1963. After 1996, 13% of the Iraqi oil sales were allocated for Iraqi Kurdistan and this led to relative prosperity in the region. [67] CNN reported that two people were killed (one of them an Iraqi soldier) and ten wounded in clashes at the Tuz Khurmato town. Relations became further strained by the formation of a new command center (Tigris Operation Command) for Iraqi forces to operate in a disputed area over which both Baghdad and the Kurdistan Regional Government claim jurisdiction. L'autonomia del Kurdistan iracheno. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily Iranian. Date: 11/28/2016. The Baath party under Saddam Hussein engaged in active expulsion of minorities from the mid-1970s onwards. Se Maometto non va alla montagna, la montagna va a Maometto! di Andrea Beccaro. Exporters/Importers trading with the Kurdistan region need to comply with the requirements of Kurdistan’s Consignment Based Conformity Assessment (CBCA) service which mandates that shipments require a Certificate of Conformity in order to clear … "[69] After previously opposing the independence for Iraqi Kurdistan, Turkey later gave signs that it could recognize an independent Kurdish state. The incursion, which lasted eight days, could have drawn the armed forces of Kurdistan into a broader regional war. Profili metodologici e primi findings di ricerca: oggetti di indagine, piano di osservazione e formulazione delle ipotesi. Dopo la sconfitta dell'esercito iracheno nella prima guerra del Golfo, nel marzo 1991, vi furono rivolte contro il regime di Saddam Hussein in tutto l'Iraq, in particolare nelle regioni del sud, a maggioranza sciita, e nelle regioni del nord, abitate dai … [51], The Ba'athist government of Iraq forcibly displaced and culturally Arabized minorities (Kurds, Yezidis, Assyrians, Shabaks, Armenians, Turkmen, Mandeans), in line with settler colonialist policies, from the 1960s to the early 2000s, in order to shift the demographics of North Iraq towards Arab domination. The Status of the Iraq Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli Hayman 1956 and Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra Linnaeus 1758 in Iraq. The region is mountainous, and the borders that were drawn after WWI reflected divisions along these mountain lines. The Kurds, an ethnic group numbering around 30 million people, is widely recognized to be the largest stateless national group in the world. For the autonomous entity, see, Second Kurdish Iraqi War Algiers Agreement, The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by D. Brewster—Page 511, Original from Oxford University—published 1830, An Account of the State of Roman-Catholick Religion, Sir Richard Steele, Published 1715. The region was known as Assyria, and was the center of various Assyrian empires (particularly during the periods 1813–1754 BC, 1385–1076 BC and the Neo Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC. In April 2012, the president of Iraq's semi-autonomous northern Kurdish region demanded that officials agree to their demands or face the prospect of secession from Baghdad by September 2012. By 1927, the Barzani clan had become vocal supporters of Kurdish rights in Iraq. [50] The repressive measures carried out by the government against the Kurds after the Algiers agreement led to renewed clashes between the Iraqi Army and Kurdish guerrillas in 1977. În Kurdistan investesc guvernul irakian, guvernul turc și alți 40 de investitori străini. In his excursus on the Sasanian Empire, he describes Assyria in such a way that there is no mistaking he is talking about lower Mesopotamia (Amm. The suffix -stan (Persian: ـستان‎, translit. Bloody clashes between Iraqi forces and Kurdish troops continued and, after an uneasy and shaky balance of power was reached, the Iraqi government fully withdrew its military and other personnel from the region in October 1991 allowing Iraqi Kurdistan to function de facto independently. [71], In September, Kurdish leaders decided to postpone the referendum so as to focus on the fight against ISIL. Address of Kurdistan iracheno - Erbil, submit your review or ask any question, search nearby places on map. Iraq – Iraqi Kurdistan: Italian archaeologists discover a 20,000 year old lake. The history of the the Kurdish people in Iraqi Kurdistan dates back to ancient times. [32][33][34][35] Later, the region was incorporated by the Romans as the Roman Assyria province but shortly retaken by the Sassanids who established the Satrap of Assuristan (Sassanid Assyria) in it until the Arab Islamic conquest. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Viaggio nel Kurdistan iracheno. [30][31], The region fell to Alexander The Great in 332 BC and was thereafter ruled by the Greek Seleucid Empire until the middle of the second century BC (and was renamed Syria, a Greek corruption of Assyria), when it fell to Mithridates I of Parthia. The region was inhabited by the northern branch of the Gutian/Hurrians around 2400 BC. The region was host to the Jarmo culture circa 7000 BC. Kurdistan. [73], In August 2014, the US began a campaign of airstrikes in Iraq, in part to protect Kurdish areas such as Erbil from the militants. About ISPI - Work with us - Experts - Contact - For Media- Privacy. Il Kurdistan iracheno rappresenta una delle zone più problematiche di tutta l’area, poiché il popolo curdo si è trovato sparso nei vari paesi limitrofi a seguito della divisione del Medio Oriente operata da Francia e Gran … 1قەزای سلێمانی.jpg 4,135 × 5,849; 1.01 MB This was not received well in Baghdad, and as a result, Qasim began to prepare for a military offensive against the north to return government control of the region. Select from premium Kurdistan Iracheno of the highest quality. "region of Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural territory in Western Asia wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and the Kurdish culture, languages, and national identity have historically been based. 1925. aastal väisas Põhja-Iraaki Rahvasteliidu mõjukas uurimiskomisjon, mida juhatas kindral Johan Laidoner. Did we miss something? Kurdystan (arab. [62] Direct United States mediation led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in what was termed the Washington Agreement in September 1998.

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